21 December 2014

Enemies | Brothers: German POWs in Japan (2013)

Feinde | Brüder: Deutsche Kriegsgefangene in Japan (2013)
敵が友になるとき日本のドイツ人捕虜収容所 (2013)

It is rare to hear a positive stories about prisoner-of-war camps, but the story of Bandō prisoner-of-war camp (板東俘虜収容所) on the island of Shikoku is just that.  In November 1914, when the siege of city of Tsingtao (China) came to an end, German soldiers were rounded up and sent to prisoner-of-war camps in Japan.  The most renowned of these is the camp at Bandō, in what today is the city of Naruto in Tokushima Prefecture, where nearly a thousand prisoners were imprisoned until 1920. 

The Hamburg-based filmmaker and author Brigitte Krause took on the story of the camp in her latest documentary Enemies | Brothers: German POWs in Japan (2013).  Krause has an extensive knowledge of Japan, having spent time at Nihon University College of Art in 1985 on a DAAD scholarship for film studies and having shot several live action films and documentaries in Japan over the years (see: AGDOK Filmography). 

The film opens with the children of Bandō Kindergarten singing a nursery song adaptation of Beethoven’s 9th Symphony.  This is significant because the first time Beethoven’s 9th was ever performed in Japan was by prisoners in the Bandō camp.  The song has gone on to have great significance in Japan with it being performed throughout Japan during New Year’s celebrations. 

This is just one of countless lasting effects of this historic contact between Germans and the Japanese.  Krause explores the personal stories of several of the detainees and their families using historical documents and photographs.  The detainees’ stories are supplemented by historical information gleaned from experts, both amateur and professional.

One of the more fascinating characters is Hans-Joachim Schmidt from Kutzhof in Saarland.  Schmidt’s discovery of photographs and letters of POWs in the attic of his new home, led to him start an online archive of historical and biographical information related to the detainees (See: http://www.tsingtau.info/). 

Renate Bergner, who was guest of honour at the film screening I attended in Frankfurt, told of her father’s experiences in the POW camp.  He left with such a positive impression that he ended up living in Japan for two decades after the war.

A whole film could be made about the life of Kazue Shinoda, a Japanese woman who was adopted as a child and did not discover that her grandfather was German until she was an adult.  Krause follows her journey of discovery from meeting her German-Japanese mother at the age of 24, to Shinoda tracking down and visiting her astonished German cousins (her grandfather had told no one back home about his Japanese family) in Saarland with the assistance of Schmidt. 

The only suffering endured by the POWs in Bandō seemed to be homesickness and boredom.  In order to combat the latter of these two ills, detainees turned the camp into a mini-village with its own garden, bakery, theatre group, and newspaper, among other things.  They also seem to have had much contact with the local residents, with events such as holding an exhibition of German wares for the curious townspeople.  One of the long-lasting traditions introduced by the Germans was the art of baking.  Fourth generation baker Tsunemitsu Oka of the German Bakery in Naruto not only had the art of German baking passed down to him, but also went to Lüneberg, Naruto’s partner city (see: Deutsch-Japanische Gesellschaft zu Lüneburg e.V.), to study under the direction of a baker there.

The credit for the POWs relatively comfortable experience in captivity is given by many to Col. Toyohisa Matsue, who was in charge of the camp.  His compassion towards the soldiers was rooted in his samurai family’s own experience of being exiled to rural Aomori during the Meiji Period.  In Krause’s film two of his granddaughters relate their experiences of him as a stern, mustachioed head of the family.  We were lucky at the screening that Col. Matsue’s great-grandson coincidentally works for a Japanese bank in Frankfurt and was able to join us to answer questions about his famous forefather.

The film edited in the typical fashion of a German television documentary, with voice-over narration and Japanese interviewees overdubbed with German.  On the whole, Enemies | Brothers is an educational film accessible to all ages. Copies of Feinde | Brüder on DVD and Blu-ray can be purchased via the film’s official website.  The website claims that it is available with English, French, and Japanese subtitles.  Make sure that you request the subtitles you want, because the DVD that I have disappointingly has no such options.  

The screening of Enemies | Brothers that I attended at Sallbau Dornbusch on November 13, 2014 was co-sponsored by Nippon Connection and DJG Frankfurt.

To learn more about the German POWs in Bandō:


Brigitte Krause

Brigitte Krause
Horst Herz

Naomi Ito
Aya Kaneko
Yuki Kawamura

Maia Hall (piano/keyboard)
Birgit Maschke (violin)
Hiroshi Akagaki (mandolin)
Kyosuke Suzuki (shakuhachi)
Naoki Sato (flute)
Sanae Mizukami (oboe)
Jin Teramoto (bassoon)
Kenichi Kawabata (clarinet)

Production Assistant:
Nao Nakanishi

Translation / Interpretation:
Naomi Ito
Aya Kaneko
Noboru Miyazaki

Saskia Petzold
Boris Pietsch

Hans-Joachim Schmidt
Kazue Shinoda
Renate Bergner
Kiyoyuki Kosaka
Prof. Dierk Günther
Takayoshi Morizumi
Mieko Matsue
Kaoru Takahato  
Tsunemitsu Oka (German Bakery in Naruto)
Hiroshi Akagaki
Marugame Research Group
Prof. Barbara Rossetti-Ambros
Fumiko and Toshio Takahashi
Ilse and Christine Walzer
Children and Teachers of the Bandō Kindergarten

Letters and Writings of the POWs:
Viktor Walzer
Hermann Schäfer
Paul Engel
The Bandō POW newspaper: Die Baracke

POW Illustrations:
Willy Muttelsee
K.M. Suhr

Photos and Film Clips of:
Shikoku Hoso
Das Deutsche Haus, Naruto 

Photos courtesy of:
Hans-Joachim Schidt
Renate Bergner
Kazue Shinoda
Tsenemitsu Oka
Mieko Matsue
Kaoru Takahato
Heribert Ambros
Wolfgang Wallraven
Photo albums belonging to the Schäfer, Pabst and Fröhlich families

Sound Design:
Peter Sankowski

Brigitte Krause FilmproduktionHamburg
East-West-Visions E.V.

Additional Funding:
Saarland Medien Gmbh
The Japan Foundation
Filmförderung Hamburg-Schleswig-Holstein

Kōnotori Bento / コウノトリ 弁当

Part 8 of the series: Satoyama Concept in Fukui

During our visit to the Kōnotori “Call Back the Storks” Farming (コウノトリ呼び戻す農法) community (learn more), we were given very healthy bento boxes for lunch featuring stork-friendly, locally grown rice and other produce.  One of the onigiri (rice balls) was with umeboshi (pickled plums). This region is famous for the Fukui Plum (福井梅 / Fukui-ume).  Another rice ball was mixed with fish, while the third was covered in fuzzy furikake-tororo which is made from thinly shaved tororo-kombu (edible kelp).  The onigiri were complemented by a selection of pickles and fresh vegetables. 

Readers living in Japan can support the efforts of Echizen farmers to “Call Back the Storks” by ordering their stork-friendly rice via their online shop or Rakuten.

Kōnotori “Call Back the Storks” Farming コウノトリ呼び戻す農法

Part 7 of the series: Satoyama Concept in Fukui


In the Shirayama district of the city of Echizen, efforts have been made to restore Satoyama landscapes in order to foster the return of the wild Oriental White Stork (コウノトリ/ kōnotori) to the region.  Oriental White Storks have been extinct in Japan and Korea for more than forty years.  By means of a captive breeding program using birds donated by Russia, conservationists have been trying to revive the species.  In 2007, the first chick was born in Japan since 1964 (see: BBC).

In Echizen, they tell of an individual stork named Kō-chan (コウちゃん) who came to the area in 1970.  Kō-chan’s bill was damaged and he could not eat properly, so the locals began to feed him.  Despite these efforts, the bird weakened further and they captured him the following year.  He was sent to a facility in Hyōgo Prefecture where they had a breeding facility.  Kō-chan recovered in captivity and bred successfully, living out his days in the facility for 34 years. 

The story of Kō-chan inspired local people in Shirayama to restore their Satoyama landscape so that storks and humans could live together in harmony.  In 2010, for the first time in 40 years, an Oriental White Stork came to the area and stayed for 107 days.  They named him E-chan (えっちゃん).  This led to the founding of a joint research effort in 2011 by Hyōgo and Fukui Prefectures to reintroduce Oriental White Storks. 

As part of the efforts to introduce sustainable farming methods, local farmers build fish ladders (魚道 / gyodō), also sometimes called fish steps, that allow fish and other aquatic creatures to move between the irrigation channels and the paddy fields.  It is in the paddy fields that many of these aquatic creatures reproduce.  Such creatures are an attractive source of food for the storks.  Although this farming method produces a lower yield than industrial farming methods, the farmers believe that the produce is safer (安心・安全 / AnshinAnzen / peace of mind safe) and tastier to eat.  This is part of a vigorous international debate on the benefits of amount of food produced versus the quality of food produced.  (See: Cornell University’s page on the System of Rice Intensification(EN), Weltagrarbericht (DE),  Japan Association of the System of Rice Intensification (Tōdai), IRRI).

Learn more details about the “Call Back the Storks” farming methods on their website – all in Japanese but with many photographs. 

Learn more about the restoration of rice paddy habitats to reintroduce the Oriental White Stork in Toyooka City here (EN) and here (JP).


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